Systemic Review and Reformulation of Outcome Evaluation in Clinical Supervision: Applying the Fidelity Framework

About the Course:

The authors note the following regarding this article: Although a strikingly diverse range of outcomes have been measured within clinical supervision research, a dominant perspective is that clinical outcomes remain the “acid test” of its effectiveness (Ellis & Ladany, 1997). We question the wisdom of this acid test logic in 2 ways. First, we summarize alternative conceptualizations of outcome from within the supervision field, highlighting several important reasons for considering clinical benefit as but one of several equally valid, stepwise outcomes. The fidelity framework (Borrelli et al., 2005) is drawn upon to show how these complementary outcomes may be logically and advantageously combined. This framework’s dimensions are the design, training, delivery, receipt, and enactment of an intervention. Second, a sample of 12 interpretable studies of the clinical outcomes of supervision is evaluated in terms of the studies’ attention to these 5 dimensions. From this conceptual and empirical review, it is concluded that an overemphasis on clinical outcomes carries unnecessary risks (e.g., weak causal reasoning and a failure to identify mechanisms of change), while underemphasizing the several benefits of a more inclusive approach (e.g., increasing outcome research and improving supervision).


Training and Education in Professional Psychology

Publication Date:

August 2014


Robert P. Reiser

Dr. Reiser is a licensed clinical psychologist and certified Cognitive Behavioral Therapist providing care to clients having mood and anxiety disorders using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). In addition to his work in private practice, Dr. Reiser has written extensively over the years on topics including; Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, Bipolar Disorders, and issues concerning clinical supervision efficacy using outcome evaluations and the review of available instruments used in CBT supervision. Dr. Reiser received his doctorate in psychology from the Pacific Graduate School of Psychology in 1984.

Derek L. Milne

Derek Milne has recently retired as Director of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at Newcastle University, England. He has been involved in clinical supervision for some 30 years, both as a researcher and as a practitioner. He is the author of many books, including Evidence-Based Clinical Supervision: Principles and Practice (Wiley Blackwell, 2009) and Social Therapy: A Guide to Social Support Interventions for Mental Health Practitioners (Wiley, 1999), and he has published several systematic reviews and empirical papers dealing with supervision. He has also been a supervisor, a supervisor trainer, and a leader of supervisors. He is a Fellow of The British Psychological Society.

Recommended For:

This course is approprate for psychologists and other mental health practationers and those professionals engaged in the development, implementation, monitoring, and/or evaluation of programs of clinical supervision in the mental health field.

Course Objectives:

  1. Identify and describe the application of a fidelity framework to studies addressing the clinical benefit of supervision.

  2. Describe how an overemphasis on clinical outcomes as a measure of clinical supervision efficacy carries unnecessary risks.

Course Article

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Course Number: 102196
Credit Hours: 1cr
Exam Fee: $6.97
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Format: Online Article or Website
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Popularity: 58 members have taken this course